is tree fungus poisonous to dogs

It’s very rare for dogs to eat a lot of azaleas, but when they do, they can get very weak, have tremors, and suffer from low blood pressure as well as irregular heart rate and rhythm, she says. Yews (Taxus spp) contain several toxins that are dangerous when ingested by dogs including volatile oil and taxine A and B. And while the leaves and bark will harm your pup, “the seeds or ‘nuts’ contain the largest amount of toxins,” she claims. Other early warning signs your dog may display include seizures and muscle tremors. Find out more information on mushrooms that are poisonous to dogs. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Park cars far out of harm's way, especially when storms and high winds are predicted. … They can be dangerous to trees, affecting their structural integrity and destroying them, often from the inside out. Once the tree is too large for you to manage yourself with a ladder and a pair of sharp clippers or a chainsaw, call in professionals to do the job. I have been trying to look it up to see if they could hurt the dogs if they decided to chew on them but I have not been able to find anything. This bushy shrub can grow as high as 12 feet, and it’s prized for its cluster of flowers in shades of yellow, white, pink and red. If your dog chews on the lance-shaped leaves, he could get an upset stomach. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Even though this sounds horrific, it is not a cause for alarm. Although many people have a fear of mushroom poisoning by "toadstools", only a small number of the many macroscopic fruiting bodies commonly known as mushrooms and toadstools have proven fatal to humans.. By continuing to use this site you consent to the use of cookies on your device as described in our cookie policy unless you have disabled them. You are interested in: Photos of mushrooms poisonous to dogs. i would like to know if there are any tree fungus (the kind that grow on the stems of trees) that are dangerous to eat. It is common throughout North America and Europe, and is found in all sorts of woodland habitats. Here are all the plants known to produce the more serious side effects (you can also find a list with photos on the ASPCA’s website): Our experts say that the best thing to do as far as prevention goes is to not have these plants at all. But one thing the flowering plant’s beauty masks is how poisonous it is to dogs. We are referring to the parts of the tree. Toxic for horses and dogs, yet non-toxic for cats, the danger of this tree presents in the mold that grows on the nuts from the tree. Beware, though: These plants contain insoluble calcium oxalate crystals, which can irritate your dog’s mouth and lips. The leaves and bulbs appear in the spring, long after the flowers have died. Typical symptoms include depression, diarrhea, excessive drooling, salivation, seizures, vomiting and weakness. Blood tests showed traces of Amatoxin, a toxin found in poisonous mushrooms. Trunks may become hollow and unstable as well, meaning trees can lose limbs or even fall over during storms. ASPCA Animal Poison Control lists it as a bead tree, but it also goes by the following names: China ball, chinaberry, paradise, Persian lilac, Japanese bead, pride of India and Texas umbrella tree. The good news is that white cedar berries are so bitter that most animals avoid them. Initially these poisons can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, tummy pain and/or bloody stools. ChewyJuly 10, 2019Health / Pet Safety & Injury Prevention. Some species of the tree grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 10. What to do for suspected dog poisoning. and there are several tree stumps that are in the yard. It is commonly known as the eastern North American destroying angel or just as the destroying angel, although the fungus shares this latter name with three other lethal white Amanita species, A. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) is a deciduous tree notable for its mitten-shaped leaves and pleasant scent. Is Orange Peel Fungus Poisonous? Even though the entire plant is poisonous, the taste is extremely bitter and most dogs do not eat enough for it to be fatal. Baneberry ( Actaea) Bloodroot ( Sanguinaria canadensis) Jack-in-the-pulpit ( Arisaema triphyllum) Mistletoe ( Viscum album) If you know you have plants poisonous to dogs growing in your yard, it is a good idea to keep your dog from accessing them, perhaps via some fencing. Tree bracket fungus is the fruiting body of certain fungi that attack the wood of living trees. Dogs are notorious for getting their snouts into things they shouldn’t. If you let your dog into your garden unsupervised after, or around Bonfire Night, make sure that you first pick up and throw away any rubbish that may have fallen into your garden. When being attacked it will secrete a substance that contains a toxin caerulein that is known to cause vomiting, diarrhea, and even depression in dogs. This is a compendium of poisonous fungi. If you aren’t sure what your dog ate, you can call the ASPCA’s Animal Poison Control Hotline at (888) 426-4435. Fungi 3: Armillaria spp. “They can cause vomiting, lethargy, a wobbly gait, and most seriously, heart and blood pressure changes, which can be life threatening,” Dr. Stern says. Bracket fungus info tells us that their hard woody bodies were ground to powder and used in teas. This bushy shrub can grow as high as 12 feet, and it’s prized for its cluster of flowers in shades of yellow, white, pink and red. If your pup eats any part of the plant, they’re likely to drool, vomit and have diarrhea, Dr. Hohenaus says. Coral Bells. There are 113 poisonous fungus species listed below. These combined compounds add up to a very dangerous mouthful for your pet, causing symptoms anywhere from one hour to two days after he consumes them. Here’s How Microchipping Your Pet Can Save Their Life, Vet Q&A: Dr. Katy Nelson Answers Your Questions on the 4th of July and Pets, Tips for Keeping Your Pets Safe Around Cleaning Products, Dr. Katy Nelson DVM Shares Must-Have Items for a Pet Emergency Kit, Adam-and-Eve (also known as Arum, Lord-and-Ladies, Wake Robin, Starch Root, Bobbins, Cuckoo Plant), Amaryllis (also known as Belladonna lily, Saint Joseph lily, Cape Belladonna, Naked Lady, Barbados lily), Ambrosia Mexicana (also known as Jerusalem Oak, Feather Geranium), American Mandrake (also known as Mayapple, Indian Apple Root, Umbrella Leaf, Wild Lemon, Hog Apple, Duck's Foot, and Raccoonberry), American Yew (also known as Canada Yew, Canadian Yew), Apple (including crabapples; stem, leaves and seeds contain cyanide, but the fruit is okay for dogs), Apricot (stems, leaves, and pit contain cyanide), Arrow-Head Vine (also known as Nephthytis, Green Gold Naphthysis, African Evergreen, Trileaf Wonder), Australian Ivy Palm (also known as Schefflera, Umbrella Tree, Octopus Tree, Starleaf), Autumn Crocus (also known as Naked Ladies), Baby Doll Ti Plant (also known as Ti-Plant, Good-Luck Plant, Hawaiian TI Plant), Barbados Pride (also known as Peacock Flower, Dwarf Poinciana), Barbados Pride 2 (also known as Bird of Paradise, Poinciana, Brazilwood), Bird of Paradise Flower (also known as Crane Flower, Bird's Tongue Flower), Bishop’s Weed (also known as False Queen Anne’s Lace, Greater Ammi), Bitter Root (also known as Dogbane Hemp, Indian Hemp), Bittersweet (also known as American Bittersweet, Waxwork, Shrubby Bittersweet, False Bittersweet, Climbing Bittersweet), Black Calla (also known as Solomon’s Lily, Wild Calla, Wild Arum), Black Laurel (also known as Dog Hobble, Dog Laurel, Fetter Bush, Sierra Laurel), Branching Ivy (also known as English Ivy, Sweetheart Ivy, California Ivy), Brunfelsia (also known as Lady-of-the-Night, Kiss-Me-Quick, Franciscan Rain Tree), Burning Bush (also known as Spindle Tree), Calla Lily (also known as Trumpet Lily, Arum Lily, Pig Lily, White Arum, Florist's Calla, Garden Calla), Cardboard Palm (also known as Cardboard Cycad), Chandelier Plant (also known as Devils Backbone), Chinaberry Tree (also known as Bead tree, China Ball Tree, Paradise Tree, Persian Lilac, White Cedar, Japanese Bead Tree, Texas Umbrella Tree, Pride-of-India), Chinese Jade (also known as Silver Jade Plant, Silver Dollar), Coleus (also known as Bread-and-Butter Plant, Spanish Thyme, East Indian Thyme), Cow Parsnip (also known as Giant Hogweed), Desert Rose (also known as Desert Azalea, Mock Azalea), Deadly Nightshade (also known as Climbing Nightshade, Poisonous Nightshade, Woody Nightshade, and Blue Nightshade), Elephant Ears (also known as Taro, Malanga, and Caladium), Emerald Fern (also known as Emerald Feather, Asparagus Fern), Fetterbush (also known as Maleberry, Staggerberry), Fleabane (also known as Horseweed, Showy Daisy), Florida Beauty (also known as Gold Dust Dracaena, Spotted Dracaena), Giant Dracaena (also known as Palm Lily, Grass Palm), Glory lily (also known as Gloriosa Lily, Climbing Lily, Superb Lily), Good Luck Plant (also known as Golden Birds Nest, Snake Plant), Grapefruit (skin and plant parts; fruit isn’t toxic), Heavenly Bamboo (also known as Sacred Bamboo), Hellebore (also known as Christmas Rose, Easter Rose), Holly (also known as American Holly, English Holly, European Holly, Oregon Holly, Inkberry, Winterberry), Indian Rubber Plant (also known as Fig, Weeping Fig), Iris (also known as Flag, Snake Lily, Water Flag), Jade Plant (also known as Baby Jade, Dwarf Rubber Plant, Chinese Rubber Plant, Japanese Rubber Plant), Japanese Yew (also known as Buddhist pine or Southern yew), Jerusalem Cherry (also known as Winter Cherry), Laurel (also known as Mountain Laurel, Bay Laurel), Lemon (skin and plant parts; fruit is non-toxic), Lily-of-the-Valley Bush (also known as Andromeda Japonica), Lime (skin and plant parts; fruit is edible), Lobelia (also known as Cardinal Flower, Indian Pink), Marijuana (also known as Indian Hemp, Hashish), Nightshade (also known as Black Nightshade), Orange (skin and plant parts; fruit isn’t toxic), Painter’s Pallet (also known as Flamingo Lily, Flamingo Flower, Pigtail Plant, and Oilcloth Flower), Pencil Cactus (also known as Sticks of Fire), Periwinkle (also known as Running Myrtle), Poison Hemlock (also known as Deadly Hemlock, Winter Fern, California Fern, Nebraska Fern), Pothos (also known as Golden Pothos, Taro Vine, Devil’s ivy), Prayer Bean (also known as Rosary Bean, Buddhist Rosary Bean, Indian Bean, Indian Licorice), Prickly Ash (also known as Angelica Tree, Prickly Elder, Hercules’ Club, Devil’s Walking Stick), Purslane (also known as Moss Rose, Rock Moss), Ranger’s Button (also known as Swamp White Heads), Red Sage (also known as Shrub Verbena, Lantana, Yellow Sage), Skunk Weed (also known as Skunk Cabbage, Swamp Cabbage, Polecat Weed), Sweet Pea (also known as Everlasting Pea), Tobacco (also known as Tree Tobacco, Mustard Tree, Nicotiania). Poisonous wild cherry trees (Prunus serotina) are found throughout North America. Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil, is produced from freshly harvested leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, or the tea tree, which grows in Portugal, Spain and Australia, as well as Florida and other parts of the southern United States. See also mushroom poisoning. The Tree Tobacco is poisonous for both cats and dogs. While the berries aren’t toxic to dogs, the leaves, seeds and bark are. One final word about spotted lanternflies: sticky bands sold to protect trees and trap lanternflies are effective, but may also trap other wildlife such as birds, lizards and beneficial insects like bees. Also referred to as dog mold fungus, dog vomit slime mold, scrambled egg slime mold or flowers of tan, dog vomit fungus is known as Fuligo septica in its scientific name. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach: Can Sick Plants Make People Sick? Things in your yard that are poisonous to dogs & cats! This list is not exhaustive and does not contain many fungi that, although not deadly, are still harmful. Is there a possibility that it is poison and what should I do. List of toxic mushroom species. Aside from the safety issue this poses when the tree becomes weak, tree fungi do not transmit to humans, so you needn’t worry on that front. Many of these fungi grow on trees, and some are even edible. Dog vomit fungus is not only gross in appearance as its name depicts but also scary for persons that have no idea what it is. Many pet owners rave about tea tree oil for dogs as a natural flea and … Trees can get several types of fungal infection and although a few fungi might affect both humans and plants, these are rare and are always opportunistic fungi, meaning they will take advantage of weakened hosts but will not attack healthy plants or people. It is a simultaneous white rot fungi that decomposes both lignin and cellulose. Signs of mushrooms toxicity in dogs i know a lot of kinds are actually not good to eat (unless maybe if you stew them for hours), but i would like to know if there are poisonous varieties. Some of these can cause serious problems if ingested by our dogs and cats. List of poisonous fungus species. No one knows what ingredient or compound in grapes and raisins makes them so poisonous to dogs, but they rank among the most serious food threats. It was a dark brown plate shaped fungus with some concentric rings. The burning bush is also called the wahoo, summer cypress, strawberry bush, and spindle tree, but they are all the same plant, and all are poisonous to dogs as … It is important to act quickly, but rationally. Amanita bisporigera is a deadly poisonous species of fungus in the family Amanitaceae. Backyard Mushrooms That Are Poisonous To Dogs. Some trees can be pruned at any time of the year. Philodendrons have heart-shaped leaves and long vines, and are a very popular houseplant. Valued for landscape appeal and strong, decorative wood used in manufacturing fine furniture, the spring-flowering trees bear fruit that's tasty to forest creatures but bitter and inedible to humans until it's transformed into jellies, wines or other cooked cherry flavorings. The symptoms most frequently seen in dogs are lethargy, staggering, … Continued. Often found on birch and beech but also other species. (Honey Fungus) Found on a wide variety of coniferous and deciduous species. The majestic sycamore tree provides great shade for lawns. My dog likes to chew them but not swallowing - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian. It can also cause vomiting and lead to sudden death from acute heart failure. And depending on the type of mushroom and the size of your dog, it may not even take much to send you and your pooch rushing to the Animal ER. Darker chocolate contains more of these dangerous substances than do white or milk chocolate. Eating a few leaves or bulbs can also make your pup throw up,  and cause low blood pressure, disorientation, seizures or a coma. Play Video . Don’t take chances with weak tree wood. Is Sassafras Poisonous to Dogs?. They can tell you how toxic the plant is and if you need to seek veterinary care. Are Conkers poisonous for dogs? List of toxic mushroom species. Conkers, the seeds of the Horse Chestnut tree drop to the ground in a spiky green case. Because limbs could fall or the entire tree could fall over, keep people away from the tree until you can make the area safe. “Even a small exposure to any part of the plant can cause heart problems for dogs—changes in heart rate and rhythm,” Dr. Stern warns. Sarah Moore has been a writer, editor and blogger since 2006. Pruning right before they begin to grow again minimizes the amount of time they will have open wounds through which fungal spores can enter. See also mushroom poisoning. While not all wild mushrooms are toxic to dogs, there are several mushrooms that grow right in our own backyards that are. The tree also contains a toxic alkaloid, three toxic resins and two toxic acids. Is it Legal to Trim a Tree Hanging Over the Fence? Every inch of this plant is poisonous to dogs—from the flower petals to the pointy, long leaves. I've been googling like crazy and I can not for the life of me find the answer. “It’s popular for people in my area to have sago palms around their swimming pools since they look like mini palm trees and are easier to keep than actual palm trees,” says Sara Ochoa, DVM, who practices in a small animal hospital in East Texas. It’s hard to over-water. It is a topical solution; it should never be taken orally. The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center reported that in 2017, 5 percent of all calls were related to pets ingesting plants toxic to them, making it ninth on their list of the top 10 pet toxins. “Those can cause intense stomach upset, depression, and loss of appetite,” Dr. Stern says. Signs of mushrooms toxicity in dogs The entire tree is poisonous, both orally and topically, so it is best not to have them anywhere your dog will be. While some plants can just give your pup diarrhea, there are others that are extremely poisonous and can cause serious problems, like liver damage. Published: 13/02/2020Updated: 13 February 2020 3:09 PM. Even small amounts can cause sudden kidney failure, often signaled by your dog ceasing to urinate. University of Illinois Extension: Verticillium Wilt. Find more dog-friendly plants here. Terms of Use Privacy Policy Interest-Based Ads Chewy Careers, Copyright © 2020 Chewy, Inc. Many dogs are sickened and killed each year after eating poisonous mushrooms. The stems, leaves, and seeds inside the fruit all contain cyanide. Copyright © 2020 Chewy, Inc. The toxins in the Autumn Crocus, known as colchicine, can have long-lasting effects too, such as suppressing bone marrow and causing liver failure, Dr. Stern says. We spoke with a director at the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center and two other veterinarians to identify the most common poisonous plants for dogs. If your dog eats even a small bit of the flowers, leaves or bulbs, they may begin to vomit and have diarrhea. The leaves are especially dangerous in the fall when they are wilting. This was about 20 minutes ago and there are no adverse effects yet. Do not over-water trees, which can lead to root rot, encouraging opportunistic fungi to colonize waterlogged roots and then move upward into the tree. Many types of mushrooms are completely harmless to dogs, but you should always take … More severe effects may include seizures and the chemicals may also affect your dog's breathing, kidneys and liver. “Like lily of the valley, oleander also contains cardiac glycosides,” Dr. Stern explains. On top of that, many of the more dangerous poisonous plants for dogs are also very common plants to have in your home, like sago palm plants. The storage of the cyanide by the tree in an inactive form, waiting to be activated by predator; When a leaf is chewed upon by the dog, cyanogenic glycoside immediately combines with an enzyme to activate it, causing the poisonous agent to form Mushrooms can kill dogs, and they can do so quickly! Plants Toxic to Dogs. It’s also resilient and safe for dogs and cats, so the occasional pet-related snacking won’t cause trouble for pets or itself.. Are money tree leaves poisonous? mycotoxicosis-deoxynivalenol include a sudden refusal of food and/or vomiting after the ingestion of food contaminated You may not be able to identify all of the thousands of types of plant fungus yourself, but trees show clear signs that indicate which types of fungus may be infecting them. ... Funky fungus u2014 Wet weather brings bumper crop of poisonous... source . And while some of the stuff your pooch comes across is just gross, other items can be downright dangerous. Proper identification is critical to safe mushroom hunting. However, the real danger lies when your dog digs up and eats the newly-planted bulbs, which have the most toxins. Only prune during the time of year specified for the tree. However, Dr. Hohenhaus urges you to head to the ER if you think your pet has eaten a poisonous plant instead of trying to treat your pet at home. Diseases caused by fungus on a tree include oak wilt, root rots, butt rot, heart rot or sap rot. Oleander is a common landscaping plant, especially on the West Coast. The edible ones are hard to distinguish from the toxic ones. Dogs who are brought to the vet’s within about 30 minutes of exposure to toad poison generally have a good prognosis. Warren Barnsley. Some people use tea tree oil for dogs ears or even yeast infections. But sometimes, that’s just not possible—say, you bought a house from someone who had a yen for azaleas. List of Dog Toxic Plants. This perennial plant is native to North America and was traditionally used for medicinal … Which mushrooms are poisonous to dogs? It was a dark brown plate shaped fungus with some concentric rings. The Chinaberry Tree is poisonous for both cats and dogs. In fact, there are tons of poisonous plants for dogs that can harm your pet. If they dig up the plant and gobble up the roots (or tubers as they’re known), it can affect their heart rate and rhythms, and may even cause death. Mushrooms can kill dogs, and they can do so quickly! Though not harmful to people, chocolate products contain substances called methylxanthines that can cause vomiting in small doses, and death if ingested in larger quantities. Many dog owners have used tea tree oil on their dog’s skin to prevent the infestation of fleas and ticks. This is a compendium of poisonous fungi. Here's what pet owners should know about mushroom toxicity, including which species are most harmful. You see these flowering shrubs in many back and front yards across the country. Are money tree plants poisonous to dogs? Generally, it is fruits and vegetables, not trees, that can transmit the fungus. The pachira insignis, or money tree plant, is hardy and easy to grow, even if your thumb is not as green as you’d like. Why are Green Tree Frogs Poisonous? ASPCA Animal Poison Control lists it as a bead tree, but it also goes by the following names: China ball, chinaberry, paradise, Persian lilac, Japanese bead, pride of India and Texas umbrella tree. Sycamore Fungus. Poisonous Mushrooms | Vivienneu Process of Elimination source . No, Arbutus marina is not poisonous to dogs. “The most common sign with the ingestion of azaleas is stomach upset,” Dr. Stern says. Typical symptoms include death, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, faintness, hyperexcitability, incoordination, myalgia, paralysis and vomiting. Crotches may not be able to support the weight of branches, especially the extra pull from those that extend out to the side, increasing the pressure at the joint. We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. Is Arbutus marina poisonous to dogs? Other symptoms include foul breath, loss of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. It often fruits in places where the soil has become compacted. With intensely colored blooms (think every shade of pink) that last a long time, cyclamen is a popular houseplant, especially in the winter. Dog parents should skip these brightly-colored flowers, though. Unless you get immediate help, he may go downhill rapidly. There are a ton of reasons why lilies of the valley are such popular garden plants—they are sweet-smelling, they have adorable little white bell-shaped flowers, and they can thrive in shady places. The first is the seeds of the Horse Chestnut tree and the second is the wild fungus that grows among the thick, damp piles of leaves. What Insects Cause Knots in Tree Branches? 4: Chocolate. Most toxic garden plants, such as granny’s bonnet, bluebells and hellebores, need to be eaten in such huge quantities to cause harm, that they’re … Tulips are spring-blooming flowers that many people love to have in their home—indoors and outdoors. In fact, many shrubs, trees, and flowers commonly found in the garden and in the wild are dangerous if your dog eats them. Dogs, in particular, can often do what you least expect as they are exploring every inch of your outdoor spaces and the tiny creatures that inhabit the grass and trees. This fungus grows in open areas along woodland trails, dead trees and roadways in clusters. Fungi are fascinating organisms offering a remarkable variety of sizes, shapes and colors. They have been cut off flush to the ground (I can mow right over them) but they are growing those mushrooms that sometimes grow on trees. Scientific name … This is a list of the most common types of dog poisonous plants. Unlike with people, fungal diseases in trees are generally incurable. The main toxin in the plant is cytisine, a nicotinic receptor agonist. Warning. Old or spent fireworks can contain hazardous chemicals which can be poisonous to your dog. They have been cut off flush to the ground (I can mow right over them) but they are growing those mushrooms that sometimes grow on trees. If he’s swallowed some leaves, your pet will probably be pawing at his mouth or even drooling and retching, says Ann Hohenhaus, DVM, DACVIM, a veterinarian at Animal Medical Center in New York City. Root rots, for example, often cause sogginess near the soil line and fungal growths, which look like mushrooms, at the base of the tree. Any plant can upset your dog’s stomach, but the toxic ones can produce severe symptoms, like intense vomiting or organ damage, depending on the plant and how much your pup ingests. It does not take much to cause enough toxicity to be fatal without treatment if your dog is small (Toy Poodle, Shih Tzu) or not in good health. All parts of the plant are poisonous, although mortality is very rare.Symptoms of laburnum poisoning may include intense sleepiness, vomiting, convulsive movements, coma, slight frothing at the mouth and unequally dilated pupils. Chinaberry Tree is a species of deciduous tree in the mahogany family, Meliacea which is native to Australasia and Indomalaya. Besides their dog food, they’ll happily snuffle and scarf up anything they come across, from litter on the sidewalk to the newly planted flower bulbs in your garden. The moment an Adelaide veteran is reunited with beloved giant service dog ‘Brian’ ‘Brian’ the 60kg bull mastiff was allegedly taken from returned serviceman Brenton Lawrence’s home last week, leaving him devastated. One dog she treated spent two weeks in the animal hospital on IV fluids, being fed and hydrated via syringes. When adding greenery to your home, just be sure to get plants that are pet-friendly, like spider plants, violets, or orchids, suggest Dr. Hohenaus. In some cases, dogs have shown signs of indigestion or allergy on eating Arbutus Unedo berries. My dog brought me a stick with what appears to be the fungus on it, but I don't think he ingested it. Plants very poisonous to dogs. It cannot be overstated how important it is to get your dog to the vet right away if you suspect toad poisoning. Ingestion of apple tree parts can cause your dog to pant, exhibit dilated pupils, and have difficulty breathing. If these claims are true, then this oil could be a great natural remedy for certain issues in dogs.

Black-eyed Susan Vine Online, Withings Body+ App, Northern Pike Eating Fish, Purely America Puzzles, Oven Fried Crappie Recipe, Socrates Philosophy Summary,

Deixe um comentário

O seu endereço de e-mail não será publicado. Campos obrigatórios são marcados com *